Where is it used and what are the fields of employment ?
Due to the diversity of production techniques and application areas, Animation is an elusive form of art. However, we can conceive this form of art in a two different ways:
1- An ensemble of movement and image creation techniques
2- A narrative form
Technically speaking, animation can transform any material into a narrative tool. But in the professional market, we see a few techniques that are cannonized as follows:
Cel/Traditional 2D Animation:
Being the most traditional production process, this technique involves the creation of movement frame by frame by drawing on paper and by transferring them on acetate (thus, the name “cel”). Today, instead of paper and cel, the drawing and coloring can be made directly on computer via animation software. However, this most traditional technique is still a valuable technique especially in the education of animation for the fundamentals of this art form were designed throught the practice of frame by frame movement creation.
Triplettes de Belleville movie is a good example for this technique
Cut-out animation is one of the oldest and simplest animation techniques and has many forms and variations. Essentially, cut-out animation involves producing animations using 2-D characters, props and scenes cut from materials, such as paper, card or fabric.
Animators divide characters into smaller segments, piece together the individual cut-out shapes and move them in small steps, taking a picture — with a film camera capable of taking single pictures — at each step, to create the illusion of movement..
Yellow Submarine movie which is directed by George Dunning is a powerful example for this technique,
Also “Bip Bip” video clip from Romain Segaud and “Lucky Fred” cartoon series from the house of Imira studios are good examples for this technique.
Moving a special effects puppet or model/creature a small amount and recording a single frame (or small number of frames) so that when the film is played back at a normal speed it appears to move.
The disadvantage with this form of animation is that it can sometimes appear to ‘strobe’, partly due to the lack of blur between the frames.
Coraline or Wallaceand Gromit movies are examples of this form of animation.
Drawing around something in the frame so that an effect can be applied to that part of the film. If an animated creature has to go behind something in the live action piece of film, that object can be drawn around so a matte can be created, so that the createure will not show over the top of that object.
If the camera is moving, then each frame of film would have to be rotoscoped. If the camera is still, then the same matte can probably be used for all frames in that shot. Rotoscoping was first used by the Fleischers for making cartoons.
Richard Linklater’s “A Scanner Darkly” movie is a unique example of rotoscoping.
The creation of moving pictures in a three-dimensional digital environment. This is done by sequencing consecutive images, or “frames”, that simulate motion by each image showing the next in a gradual progression of steps, filmed by a virtual “camera” and then output to video by a rendering engine.
The eye can be “fooled” into perceiving motion when these consecutive images are shown at a rate of 24 frames per second or faster.
The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey is a perfect example for 3d animation and mixing the other techniques in one project.
The process of recording the data from human movement so that it can be used for 3D
characters created on a computer.
Mocap can be used for 3D animations for film, TV and games, and for special effects work. There are wireless, magnetic motion capture systems, and optical systems, which track markers attached to the animator.
“A procedural animation is a type of computer animation, used to automatically generate animation in real-time to allow for a more diverse series of actions than could otherwise be created using predefined animations.
There are many types of procedural animation algorithms. This is not an exhaustive list of algorithms; instead it serves to provide you with an introduction to the primary concepts.
Much of the research that people conduct in procedural animation is inspired by a desire to imitate or simulate. If you have lots of time you could consider reading some Baudrillard for a better understanding of Simulation or you could review some of these samples, and philosophize later.
Usage & Employment Areas:
Animation can be seen in many places in our daily life. Some of them can be listed like below:
- Music Clips
- Animation Movie
- Live-Action Movies
- Interactive Media
- Technical Simulations
- Architectural Visualizations
- Performing Arts
Animation graduates can improve their work in many areas and can work in many places such as:
- Animation Producer,
- Animation Director,
- Character Animator
- Concept Artist
- Layout Artist
- Character Designer
- Storyboard Artist
- Game Design
- 3D Modeler
- Render Artist
- Visual Effects Artist
- Technical Director
- Stereographic 3D Artist